This is a great post that explains some questions I had about hyphens (specifically series compounds) very clearly:
It’s that time again, fellow wordsmithians, to return to the land of hyphens. Crazy as it may seem, two posts were not enough to exhaust the subject (though you may be feeling exhausted, and I wouldn’t blame you).
See, this is why hyphens are so tricky. There are almost as many different ways to use them as there are stars in a roadrunner cartoon.
Today, we’ll be talking about multiple hyphens and series compounds*.
Sometimes you need to use a phrase of three or more words to modify a noun, e.g., round-the-clock surveillance. “Round the clock” needs hyphens to let the reader know that the whole phrase is modifying “surveillance,” as opposed to only the word “clock.”
The same rules apply to long phrases as apply to two-word phrases. For example, you’d write “his hard-to-swallow story” if the modifying phrase comes before the noun, but “made his story hard to swallow” (no hyphens) if the phrase comes after the noun.
Here’s a tricky one for you. Do you write “forty year old virgin” or “forty-year-old virgin”?
<< waits for everyone to Google the DVD cover >>
If you answered “forty-year-old virgin,” then DING DING DING, you win the prize!** If you answered “40 year-old virgin,” then you are also right, though that wasn’t one of the options listed and you are SO busted for Google-cheating. (Speaking of Google-cheating, did you notice that different search results came back with different hyphen usage for the same movie title? Yeah. That’s why we’re doing this little exercise, my friends. We need better hyphenators on the Interwebs!)
Okay, here’s another test for you. Do you write “that scotch is fifty years old” or “that scotch is fifty-years-old”?
I know what you’re thinking. How is this different from the exercise we just did? There are two significant differences, my dears—brownie points to you if you’ve already figured it out. Difference #1: The phrase in question comes after the noun it modifies. Difference #2: There’s an ‘s’ in “years.”
Ready for the answer?
The correct answer is…wait a minute, what happened to the scotch??? Somebody drank my fifty-year-old scotch! That scotch was fifty years old, people! You don’t just drink another woman’s fifty-year-old scotch without asking! Where am I going to find another bottle of scotch that’s fifty years old??? Oh, the injustice!…
See what I did there? It’s fifty-year-old scotch, or it’s scotch that’s fifty years old. The shortcut way to memorize this rule is using that ‘s’ in “years” as an indicator. If there is an ‘s,’ then NO HYPHENS. If there isn’t an ‘s,’ then hyphenate.
So now…what the heck are series compounds?
Sometimes when you have more than one compound modifier describing a noun, and part of that compound modifier is the same for both compound modifiers, then you can omit the part that’s the same in the first compound modifier.
Just so you know, this is what your face looks like right now: O.o (It’s kind of cute, actually.)
But never fear! I can just show you instead.
“By the time I’d reached the fourth- and fifth-draft revisions, I was just about to go nuclear on those hyphens.”
I’m essentially skipping repetition of the word “draft” in that sentence. Notice that you still need the hyphen after “fourth,” though. That hyphen is what clues the reader into the fact that “fourth” is referring to draft the same way “fifth” is.
You can also use this method with closed compounds (i.e., compounds that don’t normally have hyphens, such as “overrated”).
“Both pre- and postmodern cabbage is pretty much the same.”
But you can only use this method for compounds that share their second half. You wouldn’t, for example, write the following: “the underfed and -appreciated supermodels.” You’d have to repeat the “under” for both compound modifiers.
Well, that about wraps it up for now, lovelies. Stay tuned for our next installment of hyphenated madness in which we get insanely picky about prefixes.
*Note: Series compounds is a term I kinda made up. The rule is real, but there really isn’t a name for it, so I pulled one out of my…er, I came up with one that seemed fitting.
**The prize is my deep and everlasting respect for your mad grammar skillz.